Post COVID Lung

In X-ray photos of a normal lung, a smoker’s lung and a COVID-19 lung, the healthy lungs are clean with a lot of black, which is mainly air. In the smoker’s lung, white lines are indicative of scarring and congestion, while the COVID lung is filled with white.

Patients who’ve had COVID-19 symptoms show a severe chest X-ray every time, and those who were asymptomatic show a severe chest X-ray 70% to 80% of the time.

Source: CBS News

COPD & Lung Cancer linked?

COPD patients still have twice the risk of lung cancer development. The high prevalence of lung cancer in COPD suggests that there may be common mechanisms, such as premature aging in the lungs, genetic predispositions to either disease or common pathogenic factors, such as growth factors, activation of intracellular pathways or epigenetics.

Cases of lung cancer worldwide in 2020

cases of COPD worldwide in 2019

Lung cancer and COPD may be different aspects of the same disease, with the same underlying predispositions, whether this is an underlying genetic predisposition, telomere shortening, mitochondrial dysfunction, or premature aging. In the majority of smokers, the burden of smoking may be dealt with by the body’s defense mechanisms: anti-oxidants such as superoxide dismutase’s, anti-proteases, and DNA repair mechanisms. However, in the case of both diseases, these fail, leading to cancer if mutations occur or COPD if damage to the cell and proteins becomes too great.

Source: NCBI

Alternatively, COPD could be a driving factor in lung cancer, by increasing oxidative stress and the resulting DNA damage, chronic exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines, repression of the DNA repair mechanisms, and increased cellular proliferation. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these processes in primary cells from patients with these diseases along with better disease models is essential for the development of new treatments.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory lung disease that causes obstructed airflow from the lungs.

Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the most common conditions that make up COPD. Damage to the lungs from COPD can’t be reversed.


A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke.
Two major types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Causes of lung cancer include smoking, secondhand smoke, exposure to certain toxins, and family history.


COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2.  It spreads mainly through person-to-person contact.  It can affect the upper respiratory tract (sinuses, nose, and throat) or lower respiratory tract (windpipe and lungs).

About 14% of COVID-19 cases are severe, with an infection that affects both lungs

Sources: WebMD, Mayo Clinic